Indonesia is a country of vast natural beauty, diversity of culture and tourism combined with unique characteristics of each local community. One of the samples of Indonesia’s cultural heritage is traditional architecture. Traditional architecture in Indonesia is amazing because Indonesia has 33 provinces, and each of Indonesia’s ethnic groups has its own distinctive form of traditional vernacular architecture, known as rumah adat.
Rumah adat is at the center of a network of customs, social relations, traditional laws, taboos, myths and religions that bind the villagers together. The house provides the main home for the family and its community, and is the starting point for many activities of its inhabitants. Traditional Indonesian houses are not made by architects but rather by villagers who build their own houses. Or it is a community that pools its resources for a structure built under the direction of a master builder and / or a carpenter.
With few exceptions, the peoples of the Indonesian archipelago share a common Austronesian genealogy (originated in Taiwan 6000 years ago), and the traditional houses of Indonesia share a number of characteristics such as wooden construction, varied and complex roof structures. The earliest Austronesian structures were communal longhouses (longhouses) on stilts, with steeply pitched roofs and large porches / gables, as seen in the photo below.
Longhouse on stilts in Nias
The standard is a structural system of posts, beams and lintels that carry the load directly to the ground with wood or bamboo walls that are non-loadbearing. Traditionally, rather than nails, a mortise and tenon joint and wooden dowels are used. Natural materials (wood, bamboo, thatch and fibers) form the rumah adat. Hardwood is typically used for the studs and a combination of soft and hardwood is used for the non-loadbearing walls of the house, and is often lighter wood or thatch. The material for the thatch can be coconut or sugar palm leaves, cylindrical imperate (alang alang) and rice straw.
Traditional dwellings in Indonesia respond to natural environmental conditions, especially Indonesia’s hot and humid monsoon climate. As is common throughout Southeast Asia and the Southwest Pacific, most rumah adat are built on stilts, with the exception of Java and Bali. Stilt houses serve a number of purposes: they allow breezes to moderate warm tropical temperatures; they raise the dwelling above water and mud; they allow the construction of houses on rivers and wetlands; they keep people, property and food away from moisture; they raise homes above mosquitoes
carriers of malaria; and reduces the risk of termites and cubic rot of micro-fungi.
The steeply pitched roof allows tropical rain to drain off quickly, and the large overhanging eaves keep water out of the house and provide shade. In warm and humid low-lying coastal areas, houses may have many windows for good ventilation, while in cooler mountainous interior areas, houses often have a large roof and a few windows.
The basis of rumah adat is significant and distinctive in each of the provinces of Indonesia
1. Aceh Province: The traditional houses of Aceh Province are called “Rumoh Aceh”. These custom houses are on stilts with 3 main sections and an additional part. The three main parts are: seuramoë keuë (the front porch), seuramoë Teungoh (the central foyer) and seuramoë likot (the back porch).
rumoh aceh house
2. Province of North Sumatra: The architecture of the traditional houses of this Province exist in various forms of ornamentation. In general, the form of construction of the custom houses of the indigenous Batak group symbolize the “standing buffalo”. The top of the roof is often decorated with a buffalo head. The traditional Batak house (Batak Ruma) is large and majestic, and can still be found in Samosir.
The traditional Karo house (Siwaluh Jabu) is much higher in comparison to other custom houses. The roof is made of fibers and is usually paired with a smaller triangle roof which is called « ayo-ayo rumah » and « Tersek ».
traditional architecture indonesia
The traditional Toba (Bolon) house has a very attractive shape.
traditional houses indonesia
The traditional house on Nias Island (Omo Niha) has a dominant roof over the other houses.
typical Indonesia architecture
3. West Sumatra Province: The traditional house of West Sumatra Province, especially that of the Minangkabau people, is called “Rumah Gadang”. It is usually built on a plot of land belonging to the parents’ family. The rectangular house is split in two (the front and the back), it is usually made of wood and on stilts with the typical roof shape like a buffalo horn.
rumah gadang indonesia
4. Riau Province: the traditional house is called Rumah Lancang.
5. Riau Island Province: the traditional house is called
Rumah belah bubung
6. Jambi Province: the traditional house is called Rumah Panjang.
7. Province of South Sumatra: the house is made of wood. In terms of architecture, wooden houses are called Rumah Limas / pyramid house because of the shape of a pyramid roof. The inherent nature of this province with wetlands and rivers makes people build houses on stilts.
traditional architecture indonesia
8. Lampung Province: the traditional house is called Nuwo sesat.
9. Bengkulu Province: the traditional house is called Rumah bubungan lima (Rumah Rakyat).
traditional house indonesia bengkulu
10. Province of Bangka Belitung Islands: the traditional house is called Rumah rakit / Rumah Gede.
Rumah Rakit indonesia
11. Jakarta Province: the traditional house is called Rumah kebaya.
12. West Java Province: The traditional house is called Kesepuhan.
13. Banten Province: the traditional house is called Kasepuhan.
rumah adat baduy
14. Central Java Province: the traditional house is called Rumah joglo. The architecture of Central Java Province is characterized by the juxtaposition of old and new and a wide variety of architectural styles (the legacy of many successive influences
by Indians, Persians and Arabs, Chinese and Europeans). In particular, northern coastal towns like Semarang, Tegal and Pekalongan can boast of beautiful European colonial architecture. European and Chinese influence can be seen in Sam Poo Kong’s Semarang temple dedicated to Zheng He.
15. Yogyakarta Province: the traditional house is called Rumah Bangsal Kencono.
joglo house indonesia
16. East Java Province: the traditional house is called
17. Bali Province: The Balinese house is still arranged according to a set of rules called Asta Kosala Kosali (named after a manuscript dating from AD 1080). According to the philosophy of the Balinese people, the dynamism of life will be achieved when there is a harmonious relationship between the Pawongan, Palemahan and Parahyangan aspects. In general, buildings of traditional Balinese architecture still have a lot of ornamentation and colors.
traditional balinese house
18. Province Lesser Sunda Islands: the traditional house is called Dalam loka samawa.
Dalam loka samawa
19. Province of Lesser Sunda Islands Orientales: the traditional house is called Musalaki.
20. West Kalimantan Province: the traditional house is called
21. Central Kalimantan Province: the traditional house is called Rumah betang
22. South Kalimantan Province: the traditional house is called Rumah Banjar Bubungan Tinggi.
Rumah Banjar Bubungan Tinggi
23. East Kalimantan Province: the traditional house is called Rumah lamin.
24. North Sulawesi Province: the traditional house is called Rumah Pewaris.
25. Gorontalo Province: the traditional house is called Rumah Dolohupa.
26. Central Sulawesi Province: the traditional house is called Souraja / Rumah besar.
27. Southeast Sulawesi Province: the traditional house is called Laikas.
28. South Sulawesi Province: the traditional house is called Tongkonan. The word « Tongkonan » is derived from the word Toraja tongkon (to sit). The Tongkonan are the center of Toraja social life. The rituals associated with Tongkonan are important expressions of the Toraja spiritual life, and all family members are therefore encouraged to participate.
29. West Sulawesi Province: the traditional house is called banua layuk.
30. Maluku Province: the traditional house is called Baileo.
31. North Maluku Province: the traditional house is called Sasadu.
32. Irian Jaya Province: the traditional house is called Rumah Honai.
33. West Papua Province: West Papua has over 300 indigenous tribes. The traditional house is the Honai house. The Honai house is constructed of wood and straw, as the materials are readily available in a natural environment. The Honai house has a circular shape with a roof in the shape of half a coconut. The interior of the space has 2 levels, the upper level being used as a bed. Honai House has a small door and usually does not have windows. In the center there is an oven which is used for cooking and heating, in addition to being a gathering place for families.
The ARCHITECTURE of Bali houses is intended for lovers of the Balinese style, particularly the architectural tradition of its courtyards, this set of roofs and pavilions inside a walled garden.
Classical Balinese architecture, one of the most remarkable art forms in the world, survives in a society very open to all foreign input.
In fact, this has been the case since the time when Buddhist priests from Java and Chinese traders from southern China favored the transformation of the humble Bale, the traditional Bali pavilion, into an exotic Indochinese hybrid.
A Balinese sculptor who practices his art in temples once said, “What is worth doing is worth doing well. ›› This passion for a job well done is evident in the some 60,000 temples, 500,000) tombs and other sacred buildings on the island. This passion has also been the guiding principle of many masters of tropical architecture who have produced some of their finest works in Bali before going to practice their art.
under other skies.
Bali today has no shortage of talented people envied by most Southeast Asian capitals. And Bali is nothing like the Asian cosmopolitan model. It has remained a medieval society
flourishing with its gods kings and feudalism which welcomes two million tourists each year, with the consequences that one can imagine.
The word « Bali » is synonymous with beauty, whether it is culture, spirit or form. In modern tropical architecture, the « Balinese style » suggests a trend towards a natural and open type of pavilion.
The origin of modern Balinese architecture can be traced back to the establishment of Dutch colonial administration in the early 9th century, when the Art Deco movement was assimilated to a form of colonial domination.
However, not all modern trends have been ruled out and harmoniously integrate architecture, landscapes and lifestyle.
The Joglo Gladak Limason lunbung came to this island and underwent transformations by various architects, but often with great success.
BALI CONSTRUCTION OF VILLA RENOVATION OF VILLAS
In an extraordinary profusion of styles, the typical Balinese door remains unique. It is however
closely related to the south india double gates. It resembles in particular those of the pavilions of Tamil Nadu, not only by its manufacture but also by the colors,
handles and locking mechanism. Over the centuries, the Balinese version of this door has seen many decorative variations: doors in the three additional colors of old mountain villages. to the richly carved and painted Chinese-style doors of Gianyar, Klungkung and Karangasem palaces, fashionable throughout the 20th century.
Unlike the traditional Balinese door, the door to the mountain huts has only one leaf. It is found in old villages like Belantili and Trunyan, and on small islands off the south coast of Bali. Some of these doors are similar to those of the Majapahit period. The carvings and general shape are very similar to the doors of some 16th century mosques in eastern Java, especially at Senclabgduwur near Bojonegoro. The portals of temples, sacred pavilions and houses always have double doors. The main pavilion in the courtyard. the mvrvn, as well as the kitchen (peacock), usually have single-leaf doors. Bamboo sliding kitchen doors are common in traditional homes in rural areas. The frame, the lintel (petitis) and the jamb are the elements of the door which are the most decorated. The doorframe of a meten or bale bandung door is sometimes carved in paras stone, and surmounted by the face of a protective spirit (Boma or Sai) Double doors traditionally have copper rings as a handles, mounted on key-shaped water lilies (perfume). The lock is fixed between the two rings